Physical / Mobility Disabilities
Physical Disability (PD) is any type of physical condition that significantly impacts one or more major life activities, including mobility, work tolerance, self-care and/or communication. It can be caused by a number or permanent, temporary or intermittent conditions and due to
- Congenital / Hereditary: the person has physical disability since birth or the disability developed at a later stage due to genetic problems, problems with muscle cells or injury during birth.
- Acquired: the person acquired the physical disability through road or industrial accidents, infections such as polio or diseases and disorders such as stroke or cancer.
There are two major categories of physical disabilities:
- Musculo Skeletal Disability: referring to the inability to carry out distinctive activities associated with movements of the body parts due to muscular or bony deformities, diseases or degeneration.
- Neuro Musculo Disability: referring to the inability to perform controlled movements of affected body parts due to diseases, degeneration or disorder of the nervous system.
Assistive technology includes assistive, adaptive, and rehabilitative devices for people with disabilities.
There are common ones to promote independence of individuals with physical disabilities:
- Mobility aids: wheelchairs, scooters, walkers, canes, crutches, prosthetic devices, and orthotic devices can enhance the mobility of people with physical disabilities that affect movements. There are also lightweight, high-performance wheelchairs for sports.
- Cognitive assistive devices: both in computer or electrical types, can help people function following brain injury.
- Computer applications: including screen readers, screen enlargers, voice recognition programmes, can help people with mobility and sensory impairments use computer technology for studying, working and even entertainment.
- Accessibility devices: remove barriers for the physical disabled to commute and access buildings / facilities in buildings. They can be ramps, automatic door openers, grab bars and wider doorways.